1860s New Cooking Gadgets.
Eggbeater with rack-and-pinion movement
1860s New Foods.
Canned pork & beans
White Rock Spring Water
Cold breakfast food (Granula)
Fish & Chips (England)
Folgers coffee (pre-roasted & ground)
McDougall flour (English) in US
Peanuts as snack food
“Conversation” candy popular
Fleischmann’s compressed yeast
1860s New Food Companies.
Arm & Hammer
Bay Sugar Refining
Royal Baking Powder
Chase & Sanborn
Armour meat-packing factory: 1868
Chicago Union stockyards: 1865
Louis-Dreyfus, grain trader
1860s Food Industry Beginnings.
Pasteurization - sterilization by heat & pressure: 1864
Demonstration of starch produced by photosynthesis
Roller mills (stone)
Flour mill with middling (bran & outer grain layer) purifier
“Patent” flour (double ground)
Mechanical refrigerator: 1861
Ice machine: 1865
Salmon cannery: 1864
Tin can with key opener
Thinner steel for cans
Calcium chloride added to boiling water, speeding canning time
US Pretzel bakery 1861
1860s Farming Progress.
US Department of Agriculture
Check-row corn planter
Massachusetts Agricultural College (UMass)
British Food & Drugs Act
Union starves South during Civil War
Wide-scale cattle theft (rustling)
Steam trawlers import fish to England (thus, “fish & chips”)
English Ginger Beer.
Pour four quarts of boiling water, upon an ounce and a half of ginger, and ounce of cream of tartar, a pound of clean brown sugar, and two fresh lemons, sliced thin. It should be wrought twenty-four hours, with two gills of good yeast, and then bottled. It improves by keeping several weeks, unless the weather is hot, and it is an excellent beverage. If made with loaf instead of brown sugar, the appearance and flavor are still finer.
Take three-quarters of a pound of white sugar, one ounce of cream of tartar, the juice and rind of a lemon, one ounce of bruised ginger, put the whole into a pan, and pour over it four quarts of boiling water; let it stand till lukewarm, and then add a tablespoonful of yeast. When it has ceased boiling, bottle it off in small soda-water bottles or jars. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours.
Another receipt for a very refreshing and wholesome beverage, if either heated from the weather or feverish from indisposition: Put into a jug that will contain three pints, half and ounce of cream of tartar, the juice of a lemon, and the rind, pared very thin; pour boiling water over these, and add sugar to taste. When cold, it is fit for use.
Beat the whites of nine fresh eggs to a stiff froth, then mix with it fifteen spoonfuls of finest white sugar, and five or six drops of essence of lemon. Drop them on paper with a teaspoon, sift sugar over them, and bake them in a slow oven.
Asparagus and Eggs.
Take cold asparagus, and cut it the size of peas; break four or five eggs into a dish, and beat them with pepper, salt, and the asparagus. Then put it into a stew-pan with a spoonful of butter, set it on the fire, and stir it all the time till it thickens. Put it upon toasted bread in a hot dish.
With a quarter of a peck of fine flour mix the yolks of three and the whites of two eggs, beaten and strained; a little salt, half a pint of good yeast, that is not bitter, and as much milk, made a little warm, as will work into a thin, light dough. Stir it about, but do not knead it. Have ready three quart wooden dishes, divide the dough among them, set it to rise, then turn them out into the oven, which must be quick. Rasp when done.
The most common modes of cooking, where open fires are relinquished, are by the range and the cooking-stove .with proper management of dampers, one ordinary-sized coal-hod of anthracite coal will, for twenty-four hours, keep the stove running, keep seventeen gallons of water hot at all hours, bake pies and puddings in the warm closet, heat flat-irons under the back cover, boil tea-kettle and one pot under the front cover, bake bread in the oven, and cook a turkey in the tin roaster in front.