1870s New Cooking Gadgets.
Can opener with cutting wheel.
Four-tined silver fork, beginning the end of eating with knife.
Square bottomed paper-bags.
1870s New Foods.
Nestle’s Infant Milk Food
Ice cream soda
Commercial production of margarine
Japanese beef-eating taboo ends
1870s New Food Companies.
Pillsbury & Co.
F. & J. Heinz
Grand Union Tea Co.
1870s Food Industry Beginnings.
Glass milk bottles
Pressure cooking in food canning: 1874
Frozen meat shipments: 1877
Mechanical cream separator
Porcelain rollers make roller-milling flour (wheat germ removal) standard practice
William Underwood first to register U.S. food trademark (Red Devil)
1870s Farming Progress.
Bison herds disappearing
Large US agricultural exports
European farm land shortage
Quantity banana imports to US
Long-distance cattle driving
Barbed wire fences
Vast US acreage for farming and cattle ranches
1 cup of sugar, third of a cup of butter, half a cup of sweet milk, 1 and a third cup of flour, 1 egg, half a teaspoonful of soda, 1 of cream of tartar, lemon flavor. Grease 2 round tins, and put in the above. Bake until done. Then put it on a dinner plate, spread with nice apple-sauce, or sauce of any kind; then another layer of cake on top. It is nice without sauce, but sauce improves it.
To a large grated cocoanut add the whites of 6 eggs, Â½ lb of sugar, 6 ounces of butter, Â½ a wineglassful of rose-water, and baked in or out of paste.
London White Bread.
The common proportions used by the London bakers, are: Flour, 1 sack; common salt, 4Â½ lbs.; alum, 5 ozs.; yeast, 4 pts.; warm water for the sponge, about 3 gals. The alum is used for the purpose of whitening the bread, but Liebig has demonstrated that this purpose may be better subserved by the use of clear lime water in mixing up the dough.
It is the commendable ambition in the English bakers to impart that peculiar tint so highly prized by connoisseurs, and so successfully produced at Vienna and Paris. At Vienna, it has long been known that if the hearth of an oven be cleaned with a moistened wisp of straw, the crust of bread baked in it immediately after presents a rich yellow tint; the theory is that the aqueous vapor retained on the oven has a beneficial effect.
The proper temperature of the oven is between 200 and 225 degrees Centigrade, equivalent to 424 and 480 degrees Fahr., and may be known by the emission of sparks from a piece of wood rubbed on the oven.
The dough loses about 1-7th of its weight if baked in batches, but fully 1-6th if baked in small loaves and placed in the oven separately. The best bread contains about 11-16ths of its weight of added water, and common bread often much more than Â¼. The proportion of water in the London bread has greatly increased of late years, owing to the use of the fraudulent method of making the dough with rice jelly or moss jelly, in which Iceland moss, Irish moss, or other mosses are used,
by boiling 7 lbs. of moss in 10 gals. of water, and using the resultant jelly in making 70 lbs. of flour into dough, which is then fermented and baked in the usual way. It is said that flour treated in this way will yield fully double its weight of good bread. According to Heern, 100 lbs. of wheaten flour will yield at least 125 to 126 lbs. of bread - some say 135 lbs.; 100 lbs. of rye meal, 131 lbs. of bread. A Â¼ oz. carbonate of magnesia, added to the flour for a 4-lb. loaf, materially improves the quality of the bread even when made from the very worst seconds flour.
To make fine rock candy, clarify double refined white sugar, filter it, and boil it till it is ready to crystallize, or boiled to a blister. The boiling sugar must measure 35 degrees on the syrup weight, a degree more or less prevents its crystallization. Then take a brass kettle, of about 16 or 18 inches diameter and from 6 to 8 inches deep, smooth and polished on the inside. Make 8 or 10 small holes at equal distances from each other in a circle around the sides of the kettle, about 2 inches from the bottom; pass threads through these from one side to the other, and stop the holes on the outside with paste or paper to prevent the syrup from running out. Having thus prepared the kettle, pour in the syrup, till it rises about an inch above the threads; then place it in a stove moderately heated, and leave it to crystallize, agitating it from time to time. The crystallization will take place in six or seven days. As soon as the crystals are formed, pour off the remaining syrup, and throw in a little water to wash the crystals that are left at the bottom of the vessel. So soon as the mass is thouroughly draiend [sic] set it in a very hot stove, leave it for two days, when it is fit for use. Straw-colored rock candy is made by substituting brown for loaf sugar. The syrup must be boiled over a very hot fire in order to render the candy perfectly white. The sides of the kettle should be sponged repeatedly during the boiling process, to prevent the sugar from adhering and burning.
Orange Rock Candy is made by flavoring the syrup with a couple of teaspoonfuls of orange flower water, and coloring with saffron, just as the syrup is about to be taken from the fire.